Girish Akolkar



Scientific Way of Finding the Solutions by Decoding the Nature Intelligence

Data Analytics 8
Dolphin Browser
Firefox for Android
Firefox for iOS
Google Chrome
Mercury Browser
Opera Coast
Opera Mini
Opera Mobile
Polaris Browser
Roccat Browser
Safari (web browser)
Safari 2.0
Safari 3
Safari 4
Safari 5
Sleipnir (web browser)
Steel (web browser)
UC Browser
Yahoo! Axis
600 series connector
British telephone socket
Danish telephone plug
Insulation-displacement connector
Modular connector
Phone connector (audio)
Protea (telephone)
Punch down tool
Punch-down block
Registered jack
Swedish telephone plugs & sockets
TAE connector
TDO connector
Telebrás plug
Telephone plug
Tetrapolar plug
Tripolar plug
Alfred (software)
Appetizer (software)
Avant Window Navigator
Butler (software)
Classic Shell
Dock (macOS)
Kicker (KDE)
Launcher X
Quicksilver (software)
RK Launcher
Start menu
Unity Dash
XWindows Dock
Adjusted Peak Performance
AIM Multiuser Benchmark
Average CPU power
Browser speed test
Cycles per byte
Data center infrastructure efficiency
Data center infrastructure management
Giga-updates per second
Green Power Usage Effectiveness
HABU equivalent
HD Tach
Hierarchical INTegration
HPC Challenge Benchmark
HPCG benchmark
IBM iSeries benchmarks
Lancichinetti–Fortunato–Radicchi benchmark
LINPACK benchmarks
Multicore Association
NAS Parallel Benchmarks
Performance per watt
Phoronix Test Suite
Power usage effectiveness
Princeton Application Repository for Shared-Memory Computers
Server Efficiency Rating Tool
SLAMD Server
Super PI
Surveillance performance index
Transaction Processing over XML
Transaction Processing Performance Council
VAX Unit of Performance
Web server benchmarking
Weissman score
Whetstone (benchmark)
Windows System Assessment Tool
Ultra-mobile PC
Personal supercomputer
 Game arcade cabinet
System board
 Home console
Interactive kiosk
Smart TV
Smart speaker
Apache Nutch
Grub (search engine)
Hierarchical Cluster Engine Project
TkWWW robot
3D Content Retrieval
Apache Lucene
Apache Nutch
Apache Solr
Arrowsmith System
Koru search engine
Library Genesis
Million Short
Myriad Search
SMART Information Retrieval System
Svensk mediedatabas
Terrier Search Engine
Yandex Data Factory
Yaoota Shopping Engine
Alexa Internet
AOL from 2015
AOL Search until 2015
Baidu-Chinese Japanese
Bing Maps
CompuServe Search
Google Maps
Hakia (semantic search)
Ms. Dewey
MySpace Search
Mystery Seeker
Nokia Maps
The Pirate Bay
Yahoo! Maps
Yahoo! Search
Youdao-Chinese Bing powered
A/C- aircraft
A/D- aerodrome
A/FD- Airport/Facility Directory
A/P- airplane (US)/ aeroplane (ICAO)
A/T- autothrottle
A/THR- Autothrust
AAE- above aerodrome elevation
AAL- above aerodrome level
ACARS- Aircraft Communication and Addressing Reporting System
ACAS- airborne collision avoidance system
ACC- active clearance control
ACFT- aircraft
ACI- Airports Council International
ACMS- aircraft condition monitoring system
ACU- air condition unit
AD- airworthiness directive
ADA- advisory area
ADAHRS- air data attitude heading reference system
ADC- air data computer
ADD- acceptable deferred defect
ADF- automatic direction finder
ADI- Attitude Director Indicator
ADIRS- Air Data Inertial Reference System
ADIZ- Air Defense Identification Zone
ADS- automatic dependent surveillance
ADV- Arbeitsgemeinschaft Deutscher Verkehrsflughäfen German Airports Association
AFCS- automatic flight control system
AFDS- autopilot flight director system
AFE- above field elevation
AFS- aeronautical fixed service
AFT- Aft The direction against the aircraft movement
AFTN- Aeronautical Fixed Telecommunication Network
AGL- above ground level
AHRS- Attitude and heading reference system
AIP- Aeronautical Information Publication
AIRAC- Aeronautical information regulation and control
Aircraft operations
ALI- Airworthiness Limitation Item
ALS- approach lighting system
AMM- Aircraft Maintenance Manual
AMO- Approved Maintenance Organization
AMSL- above mean sea level
ANSP- air navigation service provider
AOA- angle of attack
AOC- air operator's certificate
AOG- aircraft on ground
AOM- aircraft operations manual / airport/aerodrome operating minima
AP- autopilot
APT- airport
APU- auxiliary power unit
AR- authorization required
ARINC- Aeronautical Radio Inc.
ARO- airport reservation office
ARP- aerodrome reference point
ARTCC- air route traffic control centers
ASAS- Airborne Separation Assurance System
ASDA- Association for Scientific Development of Air Traffic Management
ASI- airspeed indicator
ASL- above sea level
ASM- airspace management
ATA- Air Transport Association
ATC- air traffic control
ATFM- air traffic flow management
ATIS- Automatic Terminal Information Service
ATM- air traffic management
ATN- Aeronautical Telecommunication Network
ATO- Approved Training Organisation
ATPL- Airline Transport Pilot Licence
ATQP- Alternative Training and Qualification Programme
ATS- air traffic service
B/P- Blue Print
BC- back course
BITE- Built-In Test Equipment
BL- Butt Line
BOM- bill of material
BPR- bypass ratio
BVID- Barely Visible Impact Damage
BWC- bird watch condition
C2- command and control
CAA- Civil Aviation Authority
CAME- Continuing Airworthiness Management Exposition
CAMO- Continuing Airworthiness Management Organisation
CANSO- Civil Air Navigation Services Organisation
CAR- civil aviation requirements
CAS- calibrated airspeed
CASS- Commercial Air Service Standards
CDI- course deviation indicator
CDU- control/display unit
CFIT- controlled flight into terrain
CFR- Code of Federal Regulations
CG- center of gravity
CMM- component maintenance manual
CMV- converted meteorological visibility
CPDLC- controller–pilot data link communications
CSD- constant speed drive
CSU- constant speed unit
CTAF- common traffic advisory frequency
CTR- controlled traffic region/control zone
CVR- cockpit voice recorder
DA- density altitude
DA/H- decision altitude/height (rel. to THR) See instrument landing system
DER- departure end of runway
DER- Designated Engineering Representative
DG- directional gyro
DGR- Dangerous Goods Regulation
DIA- diameter
DLR- German Aerospace Center / Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt e.V.
DME- distance measuring equipment
DODAR- diagnose/ options/ decide/ act/assign/ review
DOW- dry operational weight
DR- dead reckoning
DUATS- Direct User Access Terminal Service
DWC- dog watch condition
EADI- Electronic Attitude Direction indicator
EAS- equivalent airspeed
EASA- European Aviation Safety Agency
EBOM- engineering Bill of Material
ECAM- electronic centralised aircraft monitor
ECET- end of civil evening twilight
ECR- Engineering Change Request
EDTO- extended diversion time operations
EET- estimated elapsed time
EFB- electronic flight bag
EFIS- electronic flight instrument system
EGPWS- enhanced ground proximity warning system
EGT- exhaust gas temperature
EHSI- Electronic Horizontal Situation Indicator
EICAS- engine-indicating and crew-alerting system
ELOS- Equivalent Level of Safety
E-LSA- experimental light-sport aircraft
ELT- emergency locator transmitter
EMAS- engineered materials arresting system
EOBT- estimated off-blocktime
EPR- engine pressure ratio
ESA- emergency safe altitude
ETA- estimated time of arrival
ETD- estimated time of departure
ETOPS- Extended-range Twin-engine Operation Performance Standards
EUROCAE- European Organisation for Civil Aviation Equipment
EW- Empty Weight
F/O- First Officer
FAA- U.S. Department of Transportations' Federal Aviation Administration
FAC- Flight Augmentation computer- Avionics
FADEC- full authority digital engine control
FAF- [first available flight]- Airline operations
FAF- final approach fix
FANS- future air navigation system- Avionics
FAP- final approach point
FAP- forward attendant panel- Aircraft equipment
FAROS- final approach runway occupancy signal
FATO- final approach and take off
FBO- fixed-base operator- Airfield operations
FBW- fly-by-wire
FC- flight crew
FCOM- flight crew operating manual
FD- flight director- Avionics
FDM- flight data monitoring
FDR- flight data recorder (also known as black box)
FEP- final end point
FFDZ- free fall drop zone (parachutists)
FIDO- Fog Investigation and Dispersal Operation- Airfield operations
FIKI- Flight Into Known Icing- Aircraft operations
FIR- flight information region
FL- flight level
FMA- flight mode annunciator
FMC- flight management computer (part of a FMS)
FMGC- flight Management and guidance computer
FMS- flight management system
FOD- foreign object damage
FOO- flight operation officer
FOQA- flight operational quality assurance
FPA- flight path angle
FPL- filed flight plan
FSF- Flight Safety Foundation
FSS- flight service station
FTL- flight time limitations
FVU- flux valve unit
G/A or GA- go-around
G/S- glideslope
GA- general aviation
GCA- Ground-controlled approach
GEA- Ground effect area
GLOC- g-induced loss of consciousness
GND- ground
GP- glide path
GPS- Global Positioning System
GPU- Ground Power Unit
GPWS- ground proximity warning system
GS- groundspeed
GSE- ground support equipment
H- Heavy (in the context of wake turbulence categories)
H- High
HAZMAT- Hazardous Material
HDG- Heading
HFE- Human Factors Engineering
HFES- Human Factors and Ergonomics Society
HIRL- High Intensity Runway lighting
HIRO- High Intensity Runway Operation
HIRTA- High Intensity Radio Transmission Area
HIWAS- Hazardous Inflight Weather Advisory Service
HL- Height loss
HLD- hold (hold altitude or speed or something else)
HPA- human-powered aircraft
HSI- horizontal situation indicator
HUD- head-up display
HUM- Human Remains
HW- headwind
HYD- hydraulic
HYDIM- hydraulic inte
IAC- instrument approach chart
IAF- initial approach fix
IAP- instrument approach procedure
IAS- indicated airspeed
IATA- International Air Transport Association
IAW- In accordance with
IB- Inboard
ICA- Instructions for Continuous Airworthiness
ICAO- International Civil Aviation Organization
ICD- Interface Control Document
ICO- idle cut-off
IDT- identify (XPDR)
IEPR- integrated engine pressure ratio
IF- intermediate approach fix
IFA- International Federation of Airworthiness
IFATCA- International Federation of Air Traffic Controllers' Associations
IFE- In Flight Entertainment
IFP- instrument flight procedure
IFR- instrument flight rules
IFSD- in-flight shutdown
ILS- instrument landing system
IMC- instrument meteorological conditions
IML- Inside Mold Line
INS- inertial navigation system
IR- Initial Release
IRS- inertial reference system
IRT- instrument rating test
ISA- International Standard Atmosphere
ISFD- integrated standby flight display
ISIS- integrated standby instrument system
ITAR- International Traffic in Arms Regulations
ITT- interstage turbine temperature
KCAS- knots calibrated airspeed
KIAS- knots indicated airspeed
KTAS- knots true airspeed
L- Light (in the context of wake turbulence categories)
LAME- licensed aircraft maintenance engineer
LCC- low-cost carrier
LCG- load classification group
LCN- load classification number
LHO- live human organs
LIR- Loading Instruction Report
LKP- last known position
LLC- Life Limited Component
LLZ- localizer (ILS)
LM- land and marine
LNAV- lateral navigation
LOC- loss of control; localizer
LOFT- line-oriented flight training
LOM- Limitation Of Movement
LOTC- loss of thrust control
LPV- localizer performance with vertical guidance
LRU- line-replaceable unit
LSAS- longitudinal stability augmentation system
LTP- Landing Threshold Point
LW- Landing Weight
M- medium (in the context of wake turbulence categories)
MAC- mean aerodynamic chord
MAC- mid-air collision
MAP- missed approach point
MATS- Manual of Air Traffic Services
MCDU- multi control display unit
MCP- mode control panel
MCT- maximum continuous thrust
MDA- minimum descent altitude
MDH- minimum descent height
ME- Manufacturing Engineer
MEA- Minimum En-route Altitude
MEDEVAC- medical evacuation
MEF- maximum elevation figure
MEL- minimum equipment list
METAR- meteorological aerodrome report (METAR)
MFD- multi function display
MLDW- maximum landing weight
MLS- microwave landing system
MM- middle marker
MMEL- master minimum equipment list
MOC- minimum obstacle clearance
MOCA- Minimum Obstruction Clearance Altitude
MORA- Minimum Off Route Altitude
MP- manifold pressure
MRB- Material Review Board
MRO- maintenance repair overhaul
MROT- Minimum Runway Occupancy Time
MRP- Material Resources Planning
MRW- maximum ramp weight
MSA- minimum safe altitude / minimum sector altitude
MSDS- Material Safety Data Sheet
MSL- mean sea level
MSLW- Max. Structural Landing Weight
MSTOW- Max. Structural Take-off Weight
MSZFW- Max. Structural Zero Fuel Weight
MTOW- maximum take-off weight
MVA- Minimum Vectoring Altitude
MZFW- maximum zero-fuel weight
NADP- Noise Abatement Departure Procedure
NDB- Non-directional beacon
NDT- Non-destructive testing
NOTAM- notice to airmen
NPA- non-precision approach
NTZ- No-transgression zone
OAT- outside air temperature
OBE- overcome by events
OBS- omni-bearing selector
OCA- obstacle clearance altitude
OCH- obstacle clearance height
OEI- one engine inoperative
OEM- original equipment manufacturer
OIS- obstacle identification surface
OM- outer marker
OTS- out of service
OW- operational weight
P- (as a prefix:) prohibited airspace
PA- pressure altitude
PANS-OPS- procedures for air navigation services – aircraft operations
PAOG- Pre Aircraft on Ground
PAPI- precision approach path indicator
PAR- precision approach radar
PAX- passenger
PBD- place bearing distance (RNAV waypoint)
PBE- Protective Breathing Equipment
PBN- Performance-Based Navigation
PCN- pavement classification number
PDAS- public domain aeronautical software
PDG- procedure design gradient
PET- point of equal time
PF- pilot flying
PFAF- precision final approach fix
PFD- primary flight display
PIC- Pilot In Command
PICUS- Pilot In Command under supervision
PIO- Pilot Induced Oscillations
PIP- performance improvement package
PIREP- Pilot Report
PJE- Parachute jumping exercise
PM- pilot monitoring
PMA- Parts Manufacturer Approval
PNF- pilot not flying
PNR- Point of No Return
POA- Production Organisation Approval
POB- persons on board
POF- Principles Of Flight
POH- Pilot's Operating Handbook
PPL- private pilot licence
PPR- prior permission required
PS- passenger step
PSR- point of safe return
PSR- power supply reset
PSR- primary surveillance radar
PSU- personal service unit
PTT- push to talk
PTU- power transfer unit
QAR- quick access recorder
QFE- the Q-code for: Atmospheric pressure at aerodrome elevation (or at runway threshold)
QRA- quick reaction alert
QRH- quick reference handbook
R- (as a prefix:) restricted airspace
RA- radio altitude or radar altimeter
RA- resolution advisory (in the context of TCAS)
RA(T)- restricted area (temporary)
RAAS- Runway Awareness and Advisory System
RAS- rectified air speed
RAT- ram air turbine
RCO- remote communications outlet
RDH- reference datum height for ILS
RESA- runway end safety area
RFI- recreational flight instructor
RNAV- area navigation
RNP- required navigation performance
RPL- Repetitive Flight Planning
RSA- runway safety area
RSR- en-route surveillance radar
RT- radiotelephony
RTL- Rudder Travel Limiting
RTO- rejected take-off
RTOW- regulatory take-off weight
RVR- runway visual range
RVSM- reduced vertical separation minima
RW- ramp weight
RWY- runway
SAR- Surveillance Approach Radar
SAS- stability augmentation system
SCAP- Standard Computerized Airplane Performance
SESAR- Single European Sky ATM Research
SFCC- Slat Flap Control Computer
SFO- Senior First Officer
SFOC- Template:Special Flight Operating Certificate
SID- standard instrument departure
SIGMET- Significant Meteorological Information
SMOH- Since major overhaul
SMR- surface movement radar
SOC- start of climb at missed approach
SODPRO- simultaneous opposite direction parallel runway operations
SOP- standard operating procedure
SOW- Statement of Work
SR- sunrise
SRM- Structure Repair Manual
SS- sunset
STAR- standard terminal arrival route
STC- supplemental type certificate
TA- traffic advisory (see TCAS)
TAA- terminal arrival area
TACAN- tactical air navigation
TAF- terminal aerodrome forecast
TAM- total airport management
TAR- terminal approach radar
TAS- true airspeed
TAT- total air temperature
TAWS- terrain awareness and warning system
TC- towering cumulus
TCA- terminal control area
TCAS- traffic collision avoidance system
TCH- threshold crossing height
TDZ- touchdown zone
TERPS- terminal procedures
TFC- traffic
TFR- temporary flight restriction
TGB- transfer gearbox
TGL- temporary guidance leaflet
THLD- threshold
THR- runway threshold
THS- trimmable horizontal stabilizer
TLD- time-limited dispatch
TMA- terminal manoeuvring area
TMZ- transponder mandatory zone
TO/GA- take-off/go around
TOD- top of descent
TODA- take-off distance available
TOR- take-off runway
TORA- take-off runway available
TOW- take-off weight
TOWS- take-off warning system
TP- turning point at missed approach
TRA- temporary reserved area (airspace)
TRACON- terminal radar approach contro
TRE- type rating examiner
TRP- thrust rating panel
TSO- technical service order
TTAF- total time air frame
TTSN- total time since new
TTSO- total time since overhaul
TWR- tower
TWY- taxiway
UAS-Unmanned Aircraft System
UAV-unmanned air vehicle
UHF-ultra-high frequency
UIR-upper information region
UTC-Universal Time Coordinated
V&V-Video & Vision
V1-speed at or above which takeoff cannot be safely interrupted
Va-maneuvering speed
VASI-visual approach slope indicator
VDP-Visual descent point
Vfe-maximum flaps extended speed
VFR-visual flight rules
VHF-very high frequency
VID-Visible Impact Damage
VIGV-Variable Inlet Guide Vane
Vle-maximum landing gear extension sp
Vlo-maximum landing gear operating speed
Vmca-velocity of minimum control in the air
Vmcg-velocity of minimum control on ground
Vmc-minimum control speed
VMC-visual meteorological conditions
Vmo-maximum operating speed
VNAV-vertical navigation
Vne-never-exceed speed
Vno-normal operating speed limit
VOR-VHF omnidirectional range
VSI-Vertical speed indicator
Vso-stall speed in landing configuration
Vs-stall speed
VSV-Variable Stator Vane
VVI-Vertical velocity indicator (the same as VSI)
Vx-best angle of climb speed
Vy-best rate of climb speed
W&B-Weight & Balance
WAT-weight altitude temperature: variables that affect takeoff performance
WEF-with effect from
WOFW-weight-off-wheels indicates aircraft is off ground since lift off
WONW-weight-on-wheels indicates aircraft is on ground since touchdown
WS-wind shear
WTC-Wake Turbulence Category
Y/D-yaw damper
Y-yaw or yaw angle
ZFT-zero-fuel time
ZFW-zero-fuel weight
Z-Zulu Time (UTC)
AAQS—Ambient Air Quality Standards (environment)
AAU—Assigned amount units (measurement)
ABF—Aquatic Base Flow (Hydropower) (electricity)
ABT—Availability based tariff (electricity)
ACA—Annual Charge Adjustment (electricity)
AC—Alternating current
Acc.—Accession countries (to the European Union) (government)
ACE—Area Control Error (electricity)
ACEEE—American Council for an Energy-Efficient Economy
ACRS—Accelerated Cost Recovery System (finance)
ADITC—Accumulated Deferred Investment Tax Credit (policy)
ADR—Asset Depreciation Range (finance)/Alternative dispute resolution
AEP—American Electric Power (electricity)
AESO—Alberta Electric System Operator
AFE—Authority for Expenditure or Authorization for Expenditure
AFUDC—allowance for funds used during construction
AFUE—annual fuel utilization efficiency
AFV—Alternative fuel vehicle
AGA—American Gas Association
AGC—Automatic generation control
AGD—Associated Gas Distributors
AIEE—American Institute of Electrical Engineers
AIMA—Agricultural Impact Mitigation Agreement
ALJ—Administrative law judge
AMBO—Armenia Macedonia Bulgaria Oil pipeline
AMI—Advanced metering infrastructure
AMRA—Automatic Meter Reading Association
AMR—Automated meter reading also known as Automatic Meter Reading
ANGTA—Alaskan Natural Gas Transportation Act of 1977 to build the Alaska gas pipeline
ANGTS—Alaskan Natural Gas Transportation System
ANSI—American National Standards Institute
AOS—Authorized Overrun Service
APA—Administrative Procedure Act/Alaska Power Administration
APE—Area of potential effect (electricity)
API—American Petroleum Institute (oil)
APPA—American Public Power Association (electricity)
APR—Actual peak reduction (e.g. in demand response systems) (electricity)
AQCR—Air Quality Control Region  (environment)
ARA—(in shipping) ports of Amsterdam – Rotterdam – Antwerp (oil)
ARR—Auction Revenue Rights (electricity)
ASCC—Alaskan System Coordination Council
ASE—Alliance to Save Energy
ASTM—American Society for Testing and Materials
ATC—Available transfer capability
AVR—Automatic Voltage Regulator (electricity)
BA—Balancing Authority
BA—Biological Assessment
BACT—Best Available Control Technology
BBL/D—Barrel per day
BBL/SD—Barrel per day  on stream days
BBL—barrel (42 gallons)
BCD—Barrel per day on calendar days
BCF—billion cubic feet
BCP—Blackstart Capability Plan
BES—Bulk electric system (Electricity transmission)
bhp— Brake horsepower
BIA—Bureau of Indian Affairs
BLM—Bureau of Land Management of United States Department of the Interior
BLS—Bureau of Labor Statistics of United States Department of Labor
BOE—Barrel of oil equivalent (international)
BPA—Bonneville Power Administration
BPL—Broadband over power line
BPS—Bulk Power System (Electricity transmission)
BTL—building tightness limit (building tightness)
BTMG—Behind The Meter Generation
BTU—British thermal unit(s)
BTX—from BTX process
BuRec—United States Bureau of Reclamation (government)
BWR—Boiling water reactor (nuclear)
C&I—Commercial and industrial customers (Electricity transmission)
CAA—Clean Air Act
CA—Carbon Abatement- increasing carbon neutrality
CAEM—Center for the Advancement of Energy Markets
CAFE—Corporate Average Fuel Economy standards
CAISO—California Independent System Operator Corporation
CAP—Capacity market programs/Climate Action Plan
CAPM—Capital asset pricing model
CARB—California Air Resources Board
CBL—Customer Baseline Load
CBM—Capacity Benefit Margin
CBOB—Conventional Gasoline Blendstock for Oxygenate Blending
CC—Combined cycle see also CCPP and CCGT
CCGT—Combined cycle gas turbine electricity generator
CCLIP—Conditional Credit Line for Investment Projects
CCN—Certificate of Convenience and Necessity (utilities regulation)
CCPG—Colorado Coordinated Planning Group
CCPP—Combined cycle power plant
CD—Contract Demand
CDD—Cooling degree day
CDH—cooling degree hours (climate)
CDM—Clean Development Mechanism
CEA—Country Environmental Analysis
CEC—California Energy Commission
CEEC—Central and Eastern European Countries
CEMS—Continuous emissions monitoring system
CEP—Country Environmental Profile
CEPS—Centre for European Policy Studies
CEQ—Council on Environmental Quality
CERA—Cambridge Energy Research Associates
CER—Certified Emission Reduction
CfD—Contract for difference
CFL—compact fluorescent light
CFS—cubic feet per second
CFTC—Commodity Futures Trading Commission
CHP—Combined heat and power
CIAC—Contributions in Aid of Construction
CIP—Critical Infrastructure Protection
CMVE—Competitive Market Value Estimate
CNG—Compressed natural gas
CO2—Carbon dioxide
CO—Carbon monoxide
COC—Cost of capital
COE—U.S. Army Corps of Engineers
COP—coefficient of performance
CPA—California Power Authority
CP—Coincident Peak
CPI—Consumer Price Index
CPP—Critical Peak Pricing
CPP-F—Critical peak fixed
CPP-F—Critical peak variable
CPS—Control Performance Standard
CPUC—California Public Utilities Commission
CREF—Caribbean Renewable Energy Facility
CRI—color rendering index
CRP—Conservation Reserve Program
CRT—Capacity Reservation Tariff
CSD—Commission for Sustainable Development (UN)
CSEM—Center for the Study of Energy Markets
CSP—Country Strategy Paper
CT—Combustion turbine (electricity)
CZMA—Coastal Zone Management Act
DADRP—Day Ahead Demand Response Program
DANIDA—Danish International Development Agency
DA-RTP—RTP Day ahead real time pricing (regarding Electricity metering)
DC—Direct current
DCLM—Direct control load management
DCS—Disturbance Control Standard
DEFG—Distributed Energy Financial Group
DEIS—Draft Environmental Impact Statement
DER—Distributed Energy Resources
DF—Distribution Factor
DG—Distributed generation (electricity)
DIIS—Danish Institute for International Studies (organization)
DLC—Direct load control (regarding Load management)
DME—Disturbance Monitoring Equipment
DO—Dissolved oxygen
DOE/FE—United States Department of Energy Office of Fossil Energy (government)
DOE—United States Department of Energy (government)
DOI—United States Department of the Interior (government)
DOT—United States Department of Transportation (government)
DP—Distribution point
DRAM—Demand Response and Advanced Metering Coalition
DRB—Demonstrated reserve base
DRCC—Demand Response Coordinating Council (coalition)
DR—Demand response
DRRC—Demand Response Research Center (California)
DRR—Demand Response resources
DSM—Demand side management
DSO—Distribution system operator (regarding electricity distribution)
DTW—dealer tank wagon
E&D—Exploration and development expenses
E85—E85 fuel: A fuel containing a mixture of 85 percent ethanol and 15 percent gasoline
E95—like E85 fuel but with less gasoline
EA—Environmental assessment as in an Environmental impact assessment
EAR—Estimated additional resources as in considering reserves of uranium deposits
ECAR—East Central Area Reliability Coordination Agreement
EC—European Commission
ECPA—Electric Consumers Protection Act
EDC—Electric Distribution Company (electricity)
EdF—Electricité de France
EDRP—Emergency demand response program
EE—Energy efficiency
EEI—Edison Electric Institute
EEM—Energy Efficient Mortgage
EER—energy efficiency ratio
EF—Earth Fault
EF—energy factor (clothes washers)
EHV—Extra high voltage
EIA—Energy Information Administration
EIB—European Investment Bank
EIM—Energy Imbalance Market (electricity)
EIM—Energy Improvement Mortgage
EIPP—Eastern Interconnection Phasor Project
EIS—Environmental Impact Statement
ELCON—Electricity Consumers Resources Council
EMF—Electro magnetic field
EMP—Environmental Management Plan
EOR—Enhanced oil recovery
EPAct—Energy Policy Act of 1992
EPA—United States Environmental Protection Agency
EPCIP—European Programme for Critical Infrastructure Protection
EPRI—Electric Power Research Institute
EPSA—Electric Power Supply Association
EQR—Electric Quarterly Report
ERA—Economic Regulatory Administration (part of United States Department of Energy
ERCOT—Electric Reliability Council of Texas Inc a regional transmission organization
ERGEG—European Regulators Group for Electricity and Gas
ERIS—Energy Resource Interconnection Service (electricity)
ERoEI—Energy returned on energy invested
ERO—Electric Reliability Organization
ERRA—Energy Regulators Regional Association
ERV—energy-recovery ventilator
ESCO—Energy service company
ESI—Environmental Sustainability Index
ESMAP—Energy Sector Management Assistance Programme
ESP—Electrostatic precipitator
ESS—Energy Storage System  as in grid energy storage (electricity)
ETBE—ethyl tertiary butyl ether
ETSO—European Transmission System Operators association
EUEF—European Union Energy Facility
EUEI—European Union Energy Initiative
EU—European Union
FAC—Fuel Adjustment Clause
FACTS—Flexible Alternating Current Transmission System
FASB—Financial Accounting Standards Board
FBR—fast breeder reactor
FCITC—First Contingency Incremental Transfer Capability
FEIS—Final Environmental impact statement
FELCC—Firm Energy Load Carrying Capability
FERC—Federal Energy Regulatory Commission
FGD—Flue-gas desulfurization
FINESSE—Financing Energy Services for Small Scale Users
Fishway—Fish ladder
FLPMA—Federal Land Policy and Management Act
FME—Free market economics
FONSI—Finding of no significant impact. See Environmental impact statement
FPA—Federal Power Act
FPC—Federal Power Commission
FPS—Firm peaking service. See Peaking power plant
FRCC—Florida Reliability Coordinating Council
FRS—Financial Reporting System
FTC—Federal Trade Commission
FT—Firm Transportation Service
FTR—Firm Transmission Rights
FTS—Firm transportation service
FUA—The Fuel Use Act
FUCO—Foreign Utility Company
FWPA—Federal Water Power Act
G&T—Generation and transmission utility cooperative (electricity)
GADS—Generating Availability Data System (electricity)
GAL—gallon (measurement)
GAO—Government Accountability Office (General Accounting Office)
GATT—General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (government)
GDP—gross domestic product (economics)
GEF—Global Environmental Facility (environment)
Genco—Any company doing electricity generation  (electricity)
GFN—Global Footprint Network
GFSE—Global Forum on Sustainable Energy (organization)
GHC—Gross Inland (energy) Consumption (EU) (energy)
GHG—Greenhouse gas (climate)
GIA—Generator Interconnection Agreement (electricity)
GIC—Gas Inventory Charge (natural gas)
GISB—Gas Industry Standards Board (now NAESB)
GLDF—Generator to Load Distribution Factor
Gm3—Billion cubic metres (measurement – gas)
GMO—Genetically modified organism
GMP—Green Mountain Power (electricity)
GNP—gross national product (economics)
GNSED—Global Network for Sustainable Energy Development
GridCo—Any company running a transmission grid (electricity)
GRI—Gas Research Institute  (natural gas)
GSF—Generator to Load Distribution Factor
GSR—Gas Supply Realignment (natural gas)
GTCC—Gas Turbine Combined Cycle (electricity)
Gt—Gigaton (1 billion tons) (measurement)
GTI—Gas Technology Institute
Gtoe—One billion tons of oil equivalent(EU) (measurement- oil)
GVEP—Global Village Energy Partnership (organization)
GVW—gross vehicle weight (transportation)
GWE—Gigawatt of electric energy (measurement- elect)
GW—Gigawatt (one billion watts) (measurement- elect)
Gwh—Gigawatt hour (one billion watt hours) (measurement- elect)
GWP—global warming potential (climate)
HCA—Host Control Area (electricity)
HDD—heating degree day
HERS—Home energy rating standard (conservation)
HHI—Herfindahl–Hirschman Index (markets)
HHI—home heating index
HID—high intensity discharge (electricity)
HID—high-intensity discharge
hp—Horsepower (measurement)
HRV—heat-recovery ventilator
HSPF—heating seasonal performance factor
HTGR—high temperature gas cooled reactor (nuclear)
HVAC—Heating ventilation and air conditioning (conservation)
HVAR—Highly Valued Aquatic Resource
HVDC—High Voltage Direct Current
HVI—Home Ventilating Institute
I/C—Interruptible /Curtailable (electricity)
ICAP—Installed Capacity (electricity)
ICAP-SCR—Installed capacity special case resources (electricity)
ICCP—Inter-Control Center Communications Protocol (electricity)
ICE—Internal combustion engine (transportation)
ICT—Independent Coordinator of Transmission (electricity)
IDC—Interchange Distribution Calculator (electricity)
IEA—International Energy Agency (Paris)
IECC—International Energy Conservation Code
IEEE—Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers
IEM—Internal electricity market (electricity)
IEPE—Institute of Energy Policy and Economics (France)
IER—Incremental Energy Rate
IET—International emission trading (policy)
IGCC—Integrated coal gasification combined cycle
IGIC—Interim gas inventory charge (natural gas)
IGSC—Interim gas supply charge (natural gas)
IGT—Institute of Gas Technology (natural gas)
IHR—Incremental Heat Rate- plant monitoring (electricity)
IIASA—International Institute for Applied System Analysis
IJC—International Joint Commission
ILP—Integrated Licensing Process
INGAA—Interstate Natural Gas Association of America
IOS—Interconnected Operations Services (electricity)
IOU—Investor owned utility (electricity)
IPAA—Independent Petroleum Association of America (oil)
IPCC—Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (climate)
IPP—Independent Power Producer (electricity)
IPS/UPS—Integrated Power System/United Power System
IRC—ISO / RTO Council (electricity)
IROL—Interconnection Reliability Operating Limit (electricity)
IRP—Integrated Resource Planning
IRR—Internal Rate of Return (finance)
ISO—Independent System Operator
ISO—NE ISO New England  Inc. (electricity)
ISO-NE—Independent System Operator of New England
ISS—Interruptible Sales Service
ITC—Investment tax credit (policy)
IT—Interruptible Transportation
ITS—"Interruptible Transportation Service
JRC—Joint Research Centre
JREC—Johannesburg Renewable Energy Coalition
koe—One kilogram oil equivalent (EU) (measurement)
K-value—thermal conductance
kVA—One thousand volt Ampere (measurement)
kvar—one thousand vars (measurement)
kV—Kilovolt (one thousand volts) (measurement)
kWE—kilowatt electric (measurement)
kWh—Kilowatt hour (one thousand watt hours) (measurement)
kW—Kilowatt (one thousand watts) (measurement)
LaaR—Load acting as a resource (ERCOT category) (electricity)
LBA—Local Balancing Authority (electricity)
LBNL—Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory
LDC—Local distribution company (electricity)
LEED—Leadership in Energy and Environmental Design standard for Green Building design
LEVP—Low Emissions Vehicle Program
LHV—lower heating value
LIHEAP—Low Income Home Energy Assistance Program
LIPA—Long Island Power Authority  (electricity)
LLF—Load-loss factor (electricity)
LMP—Locational marginal price/pricing. See explanation in electricity markets
LMR—Load Modifying Resource (electricity)
LNG—Liquified Natural Gas
LODF—Line Outage Distribution Factor (electricity)
LOLE—Loss of Load Expectation (electricity)
Low-e—low emissivity
LPG—liquefied petroleum gas
LPN—Lender Participation Notes
LRG—liquefied refinery gases
LSE—Load serving entity
LSF—Load Shift Factor
lsfo—Low sulfur fuel oil
LWR—light water reactor
MAAC—Mid Atlantic Area Council (US- geographically within PJM)
MADRI—Mid Atlantic Distributed Resources Initiative
MAIN—Mid America Interconnected Network
MAOP—Maximum allowable operating pressure
MAPP—Mid Continent Area Power Pool
MBD—million barrels per day
MBOED—One million barrels of oil equivalent(EU)
MBR—Market based Rates
MBS—Macro economic Budget Support
Mcf—Roman numeral "M" for one thousand cubic feet (measurement of natural gas)
MDAS—Meter Data Acquisition System
MDD—Maximum Daily Delivery Obligations
MDDQ—Maximum Daily Delivery Quantity
MDM—Meter Data Management
MDQ—Maximum Daily Quantities
MECS—Manufacturing Energy Consumption Survey
MEDREP—Mediterranean Renewables Energy Partnership
MEF—modified energy factor (clothes washers)
MERC—Mobile Emission Reduction Credit (MERC)
MER—Maximum efficient rate
MFV—Modified fixed variable rate
MINHERS—Mortgage Industry National Home Energy Rating Systems Standards
MISO—Midcontinent Independent System Operator
MLP—Maximum lawful price
MLRA—Major Land Resource Areas
MMbbl/d—one million barrels of oil per day
MMBtu—1 million British thermal units same as dekatherm
MMCFD—one million cubic feet per day
MMCF—one million cubic feet (measurement of natural gas)
MMC—Market Monitoring Center
MMGAL/D—one million gallons per day
MMGAL—one million gallons
MMS—Minerals Management Service
MMST—one million short tons
MM—Used to denote million in gas usage
MODFLOW—model of groundwater flow
MOU—Memorandum of Understanding
MOX—mixed oxide fuel (nuclear)
MPG—Miles per gallon
MRO—Midwest Reliability Organization
MSA—metropolitan statistical area
MSHA—Mine Safety and Health Administration
msl—Mean sea level
MSW—Municipal solid waste
MTBE—methyl tertiary butyl ether
MTEF—Medium Term Expenditure Framework
MTEP—Midwest ISO Transmission Expansion Plan 2005
Mtoe—One million tons of oil equivalent(EU)
Mt—one million tons (ambiguous as to whether short tons or metric tons)
MVA—Megavolt amperes (one million volt amperes)
MVG—minimum ventilation guideline (building tightness)
MVL—minimum ventilation level (building tightness)
MWE—megawatt electric
MWh—Megawatt hour (one million watt hours)
MW—Megawatt (one million watts)
N2O—nitrous oxide
NAAQS—National Ambient Air Quality Standards
NAECA—National Appliance Energy Conservation Act
NAESB—North American Energy Standards Board (formerly GISB)
NAFTA—North American Free Trade Agreement
NAICS—North American Industry Classification System
NAP—National Renewable Energy Action Plan
NARUC—National Association of Regulatory Utility Commissioners
NASPI—North American Synchrophasor Initiative
NASUCA—National Association of Utility Consumer Advocates
NAS—United States National Academy of Sciences
NATC—Non Recallable Available Transfer Capability
NBS—National Bureau of Standards
NCD—Non coincidental Demand
NCEP—National Council on Electricity Policy
NCSL—National Conference of State Legislatures
NEA—The National Energy Act of 1978
NEB—National Energy Board (Canada)
NEDRI—New England Distributed Resources Initiative
NEPA—National Environmental Policy Act
NEPOOL—New England Power Pool
NERC—North American Electric Reliability Council
NGAA—Natural Gasoline Association of America
NGA—Natural Gas Act
NGL—natural gas liquids
NGPA—Natural Gas Policy Act of 1978
NGPL—Natural gas plant liquids
NGPSA—Natural Gas Pipeline Safety Act of 1968
NGSA—Natural Gas Supply Association
NGV—Natural gas vehicle
NHPA—National Historic Preservation Act
NIETC—National Interest Electric Transmission Corridor
NIMBY—Not in my backyard regarding siting of energy generation and transmission infrastructure
NITC—Normal Incremental Transfer Capability
NOAA—National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration
NOC—National Oil Company
NOI—Notice of Intent or Notice of Inquiry or Notice of Investigation
NOPR—Notice of Proposed Rulemaking
NORDEL—association of Nordic electric system operators
NOx—nitrogen oxides
NPCC—Northeast Power Coordinating Council
NPV—Net Present Value
NRC—Nuclear Regulatory Commission
NRCS—National Resource Conservation Service
NRECA—National Association of Rural Electric Cooperatives
NREPA—National Resource and Environmental Protection Act
NRI—National Rivers Inventory
NRIS—Network Resource Interconnection Service (electricity)
NSA—Noise sensitive area
NTAC—Northwest Transmission Assessment Committee
NUG—Non Utility Generator
NURE—national uranium resource evaluation
NYDER—New York Department of Environmental Resources
NYISO—New York Independent System Operator
NYMEX—New York Mercantile Exchange
NYPSC—New York Public Service Commission
NYSERDA—New York State Energy Research and Development Authority
O&M—Operation and Maintenance Expenses
OASIS—Open Access Same-Time Information System
OATT—Open Access Transmission Tariff
OCSLA—Outer Continental Shelf Lands Act (oil)
OCS—Outer Continental Shelf (oil)
ODS—oxygen depletion sensor
OECD—Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development
OEM—original equipment manufacturers
OFO—Operational Flow Order
OMP—Operation and Maintenance Plan
Ontario—IESO Ontario Independent Electricity System Operator (Canada)
OPEC—Organization of Petroleum-Exporting Countries (oil)
OPRG—oxygenated fuels program reformulated gasoline (oil)
ORNL—Oak Ridge National Laboratory
OSHA—U.S. Department of Labor Occupational Safety and Health Administration
OTAG—Ozone Transport Assessment Group
OTDF—Outage Transfer Distribution Factor
OTEC—ocean thermal energy conversion (electricity)
PADD—Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts
PA—Planning Authority/Programmatic Agreement
PCB—polychlorinated biphenyl
PCM—Project Cycle Management
PCT—Programmable Communicating Thermostat (electricity)
PDCI—Pacific Direct Current Intertie  (electricity)
PDC—Phasor data concentrator
PD—Preliminary Determination
PEM—Proton Exchange Membrane
PG&E—Pacific Gas & Electric  (electricity)
PGA—Purchased gas adjustment
PHA—Production Handling Agreement
PHFFU—Plant held for future use
PIDX—Petroleum Industry Data Exchange (oil)
PIER—Public Interest Energy Research (CEC)
PIFUA—Powerplant and Industrial Fuel Use Act of 1978
PJM—PJM Interconnection
PLC—Power line communication (electricity)
PLMA—Peak Load Management Association  (electricity)
PM&E—Protection/ mitigation and enhancement
PMA—Power Marketing Administration
PM—Particulate matter
PMU—Phasor measurement unit (electricity)
PNNL—Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (DOE)
POD—Point of Delivery
PoE—Power over Ethernet
POLES—Prospective On Long Term Energy Systems
POLR—Provider of last resort (electricity)
PPA—Power Purchase Agreement (electricity)
PPI—producer price index
ppmv—Parts Per Million by Volume
ppp—Purchasing power parity
PPR—Potential peak reduction
PREP—Pacific Regional Energy Programme
PRESSEA—Promotion of Renewable Energy Sources in South East Asia (PRESSEA)
Prim—Primary (electricity)
PSC—Public Service Commission
PSD—Prevention of Significant Deterioration
PSE—Puget Sound Energy  (electricity)
PTDF—Power Transfer Distribution Factor (electricity)
PTP—Point to Point Transmission Service (electricity)
PUC—Public Utility Commission (electricity)
PUD—Public Utility District (electricity)
PUHCA—Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935  (electricity)
PURPA—Public Utility Regulatory Policies Act of 1978  (electricity)
PVC—photovoltaic cell (solar)
PVC—polyvinyl chloride
PV—photovoltaic (solar)
PWR—pressurized water reactor (nuclear)
PX—Power exchange
QF—qualifying facility
QSE—Qualifying scheduling entity
QUAD—1015 Btu (a quadrillion in the short scale)
R/P—Reserve on Production
RAB—Regional Advisory Body
RAC—Refiners' acquisition cost
RAP—Regulatory Assistance Project
RAR—Reasonable assured resources
RAS—Remedial Action Scheme
RATC—Recallable Available Transmission Capability
RBOB—reformulated gasoline blendstock for oxygenate blending
RCIS—Reliability Coordinator Information System
RCRA—Resource Conservation and Recovery Act
RC—Reliability Coordinator
RDF—refuse derived fuel (electricity)
REA—Rural Electrification Administration
RECS—Residential Energy Consumption Survey
REEEP—Renewable Energy and Energy Efficiency Partnership
RER—Renewable Energy Rider
RESNET—Residential energy services network
RES—Renewable energy source
RET/EE—IAF Renewable Energy Technology & Energy Efficiency Investment Advisory Facility
RFA—Regulatory Flexibility Act
RFC—ReliabilityFirst Corporation  (electricity)
RFG—reformulated gasoline (oil)
RFI—Request for Interchange
RFP—Request for proposals
RF—Radio frequency
RGGI—Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative
RGS—Renewable Generating System
RMATS—Rocky Mountain Area Transmission Study  (electricity)
RMR—Reliability Must Run (electricity)
RMU—Removal Units
ROA—Return of Assets (finance)
ROE—Return of Equity (finance)
ROFR—Right of First Refusal (finance)
ROI—Return on Investment
ROW—Right of Way
RPM—Reliability Pricing Model
RRO—Regional reliability organization
RSE—relative standard error
RSE—Revenue Stream Estimate (finance)
RTBM—Real-Time Balancing Market (electricity)
RTEP—Regional transmission expansion plan
RTG—Regional Transmission Group
RTO—Regional transmission organization
RTP—Real time Pricing
RTU—Remote Terminal Unit
RUS—Rural Utilities Service
R-value—thermal resistance
RVP—Reid vapor pressure
SCADA—Supervisory control and data acquisition
SCE—Southern California Edison
scf—Standard cubic foot
SCO—Stranded Cost Obligation (finance)
SCR—Selective Catalytic Reduction
SCR—Special Case Resources (US- NYISO category)
SC—shading coefficient (windows)
SDG&E—San Diego Gas & Electric
SEA—Strategic Environmental Assessment
SEC—Securities and Exchange Commission
SEER—seasonal E efficiency ratio
SEER—seasonal energy efficiency ratio
SEFI—Sustainable Energy Finance Initiative
SEIA—Sustainable Energy Industry Association
SERC—Southeastern Electric Reliability Council
SF6—sulfur hexafluoride
SFC—Solid oxide fuel cell (transportation)
SFEIS—Supplemental Final Environmental Impact Statement
SFV—Straight Fixed Variable
SGR—State game refuge
SHGC—solar heat gain coefficient
SHPO—State Historic Preservation Office
SIC—Standard Industrial Classification
SI—International System of Units (Système international d'unités)
SIR—savings-to-investment ratio (energy conservation investments)
SLA—Specific leakage area
SMPs—Special Marketing Programs
SNG—Synthetic Natural Gas or Substitute Natural Gas
SO2—Sulfur dioxide
SOL—System Operating Limit
SPB—Simple Payback (energy conservation investments)
SPCC—Spill Prevention- Containment and Countermeasure Plan
SPM—Synchronized phasor measurement
SPP—Southwest Power Pool Inc
SPR—Strategic Petroleum Reserve
SPS—Special Protection System
SRP—Salt River Agricultural Improvement & Power District  (electricity)
SR—Speculative resources
SSE—steady-state efficiency
SSG—WI PWG Seams Steering Group of Western Interconnection PlanningWork Group  (electricity)
SSM—Synchronized system measurement-a WAMS with synchronous sensors in addition to PMUs
STEP—Southwest Transmission Expansion Plan group  (electricity)
SVC—Static VAR compensator (electricity)
SWAT—Southwest Area Transmission  (electricity)
SWU—Separative work unit
T&D—Transmission & Distribution
TAME—Tertiary amyl methyl ether
TAPS—Trans-Alaska Pipeline System (natural gas)
TBA—tertiary butyl alcohol
TBL—Transmission business line (electricity)
TBS—Town border station
Tcf—Trillion cubic feet (measurement)
TCR—Transition Cost Recovery (Mechanism)
TDU—Transmission Dependent Utility (electricity)
TEFRA—Tax Equity and Fiscal Responsibility Act of 1985
TEN—Trans-European Networks (electricity)
TLR—Procedures Transmission Line Loading Relief Procedures (electricity)
toe—Ton of oil equivalent (EU)
TOP—Transmission Operator (electricity)
TO—Transmission owner (electricity)
TOU—Time of use (rate) (electricity)
TRM—Transmission Reliability Margin (electricity)
TSO—Transmission System Operator) (electricity)
TSR—Transmission Service Request (electricity)
TTC—Total Transfer Capability (electricity)
TVA—Tennessee Valley Authority  (electricity)
TWH—terawatt-hour (one trillion watt hours)
TW—terawatt (one trillion watts) (measurement)
U S C —United States Code
U3O8—triuranium octaoxide (nuclear)
UAE—United Arab Emirates (oil)
UCAP—Unforced Capacity (electricity)
UCTE—Union for the Coordination of the Transport of Electricity
UF6—uranium hexaflouride (nuclear)
UFLS—Under frequency load shedding (electricity)
UHVAC—Ultra High Voltage Alternating Current (electricity)
UHVDC—Ultra High Voltage Direct Current (electricity)
ULCC—Ultra Large Crude Carrier (oil)
UMTRA—Uranium Mill Tailings Radiation Control Act of 1978
UNCCD—United Nations Convention to Combat Desertification
UNDESA—UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs
UNDP—United Nations Development Programme
UNECE—United Nations Economic Commission for Europe
UNEP—United Nations Environment Programme
UNFCCC—United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change
UO2—uranium dioxide (nuclear)
UO3—uranium trioxide (nuclear)
UO4—uranyl peroxide (nuclear)
UOX—uranium oxide (nuclear)
URR—Ultimate Recoverable Resources
US DOE—United States Department of Energy
USBR—United States Bureau of Reclamation
USCE—United States Army Corps of Engineers
USGS—United States Geological Survey
U-value—thermal transmittance (also called U-factor)
UVLS—Under voltage load shedding (electricity)
var—Volt-ampere reactive (measurement)
VA—Volt-ampere (measurement)
VAWT—vertical axis wind turbine (wind)
VIN—vehicle identification number  (transportation)
VLCC—very large crude carrier (oil)
VMT—vehicle miles traveled (transportation)
VOC—volatile organic compound
VPP—Variable peak pricing (electricity)
VSA—Voltage stability analysis
V—Volt (measurement)
WACOG—weighted average cost of gas
WAMS—Wide area measurement system- see description in phasor measurement unit article
WCMC—World Conservation Monitoring Centre
WCRE—World Commission on Renewable Energy
WEA—World Energy Assessment
WECC—Western Electricity Coordinating Council
WEC—World Energy Council
WEEA—World Energy Efficiency Organization
WF—water factor (clothes washers)
WHO—World Health Organisation
WH—watthour (measurement)
WIRAB—Western Interconnection Regional Advisory Body
WRI—World Resources Institute
WSCC—Western Systems Coordinating Council
WSPP—Western Systems Power Pool
WSSD—World Summit on Sustainable Development
WTG—Wind turbine generator (wind)
WTI—West Texas Intermediate
WTP—Willingness to pay
WY—Water Year (measurement)
.NET Bio
Integrated Genome Browser
LabKey Server
Staden Package
Taverna workbench
3DSlicer Platform
Advanced Simulation Library
Dental management and patient record
Diagnostic software
Electronic health or medical record
Endrov Image and data viewer and editor
Epi Info
GIMIAS workflow
Ginkgo CADx Cross-platform open source DICOM viewer and dicomizer
GNU Health
Health system management
Hospital OS
Interoperability testing
InVesalius 3D medical imaging reconstruction software
ITK segmentation and registration toolkit
ITK-SNAP Interactive software
LabKey Server
Medical information systems
Medical practice management software
MITK - Medical Imaging Interaction Toolkit
Mobile devices
Open Dental
Open Health Imaging Foundation – HTML5 DICOM web viewer software and server
OSCAR McMaster
ParaView large-scale visualization tool
Public health and biosurveillance
Spatiotemporal Epidemiological Modeler
Voreen volume rendering engine
VTK visualization toolkit
Xebra (medical imaging software)
A/V- Arteriole–venue ratio
AC 0/4- Grade 0 anterior chamber angle
AC 1/4- Grade 1 anterior chamber angle
AC 2/4- Grade 2 anterior chamber angle
AC 3/4- Grade 3 anterior chamber angle
AC 4/4- Grade 4 anterior chamber angle
AC- Anterior chamber
AC/A- Accommodative convergence / Accommodation ratio
Acc- Accommodation
Ad- Advised
Add- Addition
AIT- After-image transfer
ALT- Alternating
ALT ET- Alternating esotropia
ALT XT- Alternating exotropia
ARC- Anomalous retinal correspondence
BIO- Binocular indirect ophthalmoscopy
BSV- Binocular single vision
BV- Binocular vision
BVD- Back vertex distance
BVP- Back vertex power
C/D- Cup–disc ratio
c/o or c.o.- Complains of
c/u- Check up
CD- Centration distance
CF- Count fingers vision – state distance
CT- Cover test
CW- Close work
D- Dioptres
DC- Dioptres cylinder
DNA- Did not attend
DOB- Date of birth
DS- Dioptres sphere
DV- Distance vision
DVD- Dissociated vertical deviation
EF- Eccentric fixation
EP- Esophoria
ET- Esotropia
F/U- Follow up appointment
FB- Foreign body
FD- Fixation disparity
FF- Foveal fixation
FHG- Family history of glaucoma
FMH- Family medical history
FOH- Family ocular history
G(M)P- General (medical) practitioner
GH- General health
HA- Headaches
HARC- Harmonious abnormal retinal correspondence
HM- Hand motion vision – state distance
Horizontal and vertical orthophoria
Hx- History
IOL- Intra-ocular lens
IOP- Intra-ocular pressure
ISNT- Inferior/ Superior/ Nasal/ Temporal
K- Keratometry
L/R FD- L/R fixation disparity
L/R- L hyperphoria
LE- Left eye
Left ET- Left esotropia
LHyperT or LHT- Left hypertropia
LHypoT- Left hypotropia
LO- Lenticular opacity
LVA- Low vision aid
M.Wing- Maddox Wing
MDU- Mallett distance unit
MNU- Mallett near unit
MR- Maddox rod
NB: NAD- No abnormality detected
NCT- Non-contact tonometer
ND- Neutral density filter
NLP- No light perception
NPC- Near point of convergence or no previous correction
NRC- Normal retinal correspondence
NV- Near vision
NWT- Normal wearing time
o symptoms- Zero symptoms
Occ.- Occupation
OC's- Optical centres
OD- oculus dexter (right eye)
OH- Ocular history
OMB- Oculo motor balance
ONH- Optic nerve head
Oph- Ophthalmoscopy
OS- oculus sinister (left eye)
OU- oculus utro (both eyes)
PD- Pupillary distance
PERRLA- Pupils equal
PH- Pinhole
PHVA- Pinhole Visual Acuity
PL- Perception of light
POH / PrOH- Previous ocular history
PPA- Peri-papillary atrophy
Pt- Patient
RAPD- Relative afferent pupillary defect
RE- Right eye
Ret.- Retinoscopy
RHyperT- Right hypertropia
RHypoT or RHT- Right hypotropia
RNFL- Retinal nerve fibre layer
RPE- Retinal pigment epithelium
RSOT- Right esotropia
Rx- Prescription
SE- Spherical Equivalent
SLE- Slit lamp examination
SLM- Slit lamp microscope
Supp.- Suppression
V- Vision (unaided)
VA OD- Right visual acuity
VA OS- Left visual acuity
VA- Visual acuity
VDU- Visual display unit
VF- Visual field
VPS- Variable prism stereoscope
WD- Working distance
X/12- X months
X/52- X weeks
X/7- X days
XP- Exophoria
XT- Exotropia
Δ- Prism dioptre
θ- Vertical orthophoria
ϕ- Horizontal orthophoria
ACG/CAG- Angle closure glaucoma
AMD/ARMD- Age-related macular degeneration
BDR- Background diabetic retinopathy
BP- Blood pressure
BRAO- Branch retinal artery occlusion
BRVO- Branch retinal vein occlusion
Cat- Cataract
CLAPC/CLIPC- Contact lens associated/induced papillary conjunctivitis
CLARE- Contact lens associated red eye
CLPU- Contact lens associated peripheral ulcer
CNS- Central nervous system
CRAO- Central retinal artery occlusion
CRVO- Central retinal vein occlusion
CSR- Central serous retinopathy
CVA- Cerebrovascular accident
dDx- Differential diagnosis
DR- Diabetic retinopathy
Dx- Diagnosis
ESR- Erythrocyte sedimentation rate
Fx- Family history
GPC- Giant papillary conjunctivitis
HES- Hospital eye service
Hx- Hospital
IDDM- Insulin dependent diabetes mellitus
IRMA- Intra-retinal microvascular abnormality
KCS- Keratoconjunctivitis sicca
KP- Keratic precipitates
LASEK- Laser epithelial keratomileusis
LASIK- Laser in-situ keratomileusis
LTG- Low-tension glaucoma
MI- Myocardial infarction
MS- Multiple sclerosis
NIDDM- Non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus
NRR- Neuro-retinal rim
NS- Nuclear sclerosis
NTG- Normal tension glaucoma
PDR- Proliferative diabetic retinopathy
PDT- Photodynamic therapy
PK- Penetrating keratoplasy
POAG- Primary open-angle glaucoma
PPDR- Preproliferative diabetic retinopathy
PRA- Pan-retinal ablation
PRK- Photorefractive keratectomy
PRP- Pan-retinal photocoagulation
PSCC- Posterior sub-capsular cataract
PVD- Posterior vitreous detachment
RD- Retinal detachment
RK- Radial keratotomy
RP- Retinitis pigmentosa
SEAL- Superior epithelial arcuate lesion
SLK- Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis
SPEE- Superficial punctate epithelial erosions
SPK- Superficial punctate keratitis
Sx- Symptoms
T1 diab- Type 1 diabetes
T2 diab- Type 2 diabetes
TIA- Transient ischaemic attack
Tx- Treatment
Vx- Vomiting
BC- Base curve
BOZD- Back optic zone diameter
BOZR- Back optic zone radius
BVP- Back vertex power
CLAPC/CLIPC- Contact-lens-associated/induced papillary conjunctivitis
CLARE- Contact-lens-associated red eye
CLPU- Contact-lens-associated peripheral ulcer
Dk- Unit of permeability
DW- Daily wear
EW- Extended wear
FOZD- Front optic zone diameter
FVP- Front vertex power
HEMA- Hydroxyethyl methacrylate
HT- Handling tint
HVID- Horizontal visible iris diameter
K- Keratometry
MWT- Maximum wearing time
OS/OD- Overall size/overall diameter
OZD- Optic zone diameter
PMMA- Polymethyl methacrylate
RGP- Rigid-gas-permeable
SCL- Soft contact lens
SEAL- Superior epithelial arcuate lesion
SiH- Silicone hydrogel
SLK- Superior limbic keratoconjunctivitis
SPEE- Superficial punctate epithelial erosions
SPK- Superficial punctate keratitis
TBUT- Tear break-up time
Tc- Centre thickness
TD- Total diameter
Te- Edge thickness
TWT/WTT- Today wearing time
VPA- Vertical palpebral aperture
WT- Wearing time
DFE- Dilated fundus examination
DFP- Digital fundus photograph(y)
DRS- Diabetic retinopathy screening
GIES- Glasgow Integrated Eyecare Scheme
PEARS- Primary Eyecare Acute Referral Scheme
WEHE- Welsh Eye Health Examination
WLVS- Welsh Low Vision Service
A.d.- As directed
bd/bid- Twice a day
GSL- General sales list
gt- One drop
gtt- drops
Gutt/g- Guttae (drops)
Meds- Medications
Nocte/QHS- At night
Occ- Ointment
od/QD- Once a day
otc- Over the counter (bought medication)
P- Pharmacy (drug)
POM- Prescription-only medicine
prn- When required
q- Every (e.g. q2h – every two hours)
qds/qid- Four times a day
Rx- Prescription
tds/tid- Three times a day
ung- Ointment
Beyond TV
InterVideo WinDVR
JRiver Media Center
Video Disk Recorder
Windows Media Center
Windows XP Media Center Edition

Birth, Time of Birth, Date of Birth, Month of Birth, Season of Birth, Year of Birth.

Death, Time of Death, Date of Death, Month of Death, Season of Death, Year of Death.

Shraaddha, Time of Shraaddha, Date of Shraaddha, Month of Shraaddha, Season of Shraaddha, Year of Shraaddha.

Education, Job, Marriage, Retirement, Death.

Job, Time of Joining of Job, Date of Joining of Job, Month of Joining of Job, Season of Joining of Job, Year of Joining of Job

Marriage, Time of Marriage, Date of Marriage, Month of Marriage, Season of Marriage, Year of Job

Divorce, Time of Divorce, Date of Divorce, Month of Divorce, Season of Divorce, Year of Divorce

Business, Time of Commenecemnt of Business, Date of Commenecemnt of Business, Month of Commenecemnt of Business, Season of Commenecemnt of Business, Year of Commenecemnt of Business

NPA - Non Performing Assets, Time of NPA - Non Performing Assets, Date of NPA - Non Performing Assets, Month of NPA - Non Performing Assets, Season of NPA - Non Performing Assets, Year of NPA - Non Performing Assets

Vaastu, East, West, North, South, North East, North West, South East, South West

Success, Achievement, Secured Life, Health, Wealth, Joy, Pleasure, Contented, Satisfaction, Happiness, Growth, fulfilment of Wishes, Career, Sports, Games, Hobbies, Internet, Wifi, Mobile, Social Media, Whatsapp, Facebook, Twitter, Linkedin, Youtube, Instagram, Google Plus, DoWhistle, Insurance, Mediclaim, Salary, Bonus, Gratuity, ESIC, PF, Pension, Investment, Stock Holding, Income Tax, GST, Import Export Code, Balance Sheet, Energy, Peace of Mind, Meditation, Yoga, Brahmamurta, Enabler, Alchemist, Prayer, Excercise, Diet, Vegetarian, Lifestyle, Addiction, Video Games, Newspaper, TV Channels, Internet Browisng, Research & Development, Innovation, Forensic Engineering Audit, Startup, Technology, Merger & Acquisitions, Advertising, Branding, Consultant, Advisor, Solution Providers, Digital Transformation, Human Resources, Placement Assistance, Self Enterpreneur, Trading, Broking, Marketing, Reselling, Stockist, Dealer, Distributors, value Addition, Business Exchange, Personal Relation(PR), Restructuring, Redesign, Subham karoti, Ram Raksha, Mantra, Tantra, Gayatri Mantra, Aarti, Maha Mrityunjaya Mantra, Atharvashirsha, Satya Narayn Pooja, Ganpati, Navratri, Govinda, Janmashtami, Diwali, Dasara, Holi, Akshatruteya, Rang Panchami, Gym, Aasan, Sanskrut, Routine Life.